The Future of Nano Sensors

The Future of Nano Sensors: Revolutionizing Data Collection and Analysis

Nanosensors have emerged as powerful technologies that are transforming data collection and processing in this rapidly developing sector of technology. These tiny machines, which are frequently smaller than a grain of sand, are made to identify and quantify various physical, chemical, or biological properties. Nanosensors are positioned to revolutionize a variety of industries, from healthcare to environmental monitoring, thanks to their outstanding sensitivity, adaptability, and capacity to work in a variety of settings. In this blog, we examine the enormous potential of nanosensors and how they are changing the way that data gathering and analysis will be done in the future.

Enhanced Precision and Sensitivity:

Nanosensors have made it possible to capture data with new levels of precision and sensitivity. These sensors’ tiny size allows them to reach confined spaces and collect data with unmatched precision. For example, in the medical field, nanosensors built into medical equipment can continuously monitor vital signs, which enables non-invasive, real-time patient monitoring. In terms of early disease identification, tailored medication, and remote patient monitoring, this level of precision is quite advantageous.

Expanding Applications in Healthcare:

The development of nanosensor technology has significant advantages for the healthcare sector. Nanosensors are being extensively used in tissue engineering, medication delivery systems, and diagnostics. Medical practitioners can identify diseases at their early stages and develop more effective treatments by incorporating nanosensors into diagnostic instruments. Nanosensors can also help with targeted drug delivery, ensuring that medicines are given exactly where they are needed and reducing unwanted effects. Additionally, by incorporating nanosensors into tissue engineering, it is possible to track tissue function and growth in real-time, hastening the advancement of regenerative medicine.

Smart Cities and Infrastructure:

Infrastructure and Smart Cities: The use of nanosensors is making cities smarter and more environmentally friendly. To monitor structural health, pinpoint possible problems, and enhance maintenance procedures, these sensors can be integrated into structures such as buildings, bridges, and transportation systems. Nanosensors provide predictive maintenance by collecting real-time data on factors like temperature, humidity, and strain, improving safety and lowering expenses. Additionally, nanosensors can be utilized in the transportation sector to monitor traffic flow, optimize routes, and improve energy efficiency, reducing congestion and pollution.

Environmental Monitoring and Sustainability:

Nano sensors are essential for efforts to monitor the environment and promote sustainability. These sensors are able to identify contaminants, keep an eye on the quality of the air and water, and determine how human activity affects the ecosystem. Nano sensors can be widely used to build huge sensor networks for thorough data collecting because of their small size and wireless connectivity. With the use of these data, environmental researchers, resource managers, and policymakers can make better decisions that will improve conservation and mitigation efforts.

Challenges and Considerations:

Despite the enormous potential of nanosensors, there are a number of difficulties and factors to take into account. Making sure the data is reliable and accurate is one of the biggest challenges. Calibration, validation, and data interpretation become essential for maintaining data integrity as nanosensors become more complicated. As a result of the massive collection and transmission of sensitive information, worries about data privacy and security also surface. To increase public confidence in this technology, a balance between data collecting and privacy protection is necessary.


The technological revolution being led by nano sensors has given us unheard-of possibilities for data collecting and analysis. These tiny gadgets are revolutionizing industries, improving precision, and enabling real-time monitoring in a variety of sectors, from healthcare to smart cities. To fully realize the potential of nanosensor technology, it will be essential to address the accompanying challenges. Nanosensors have the potential to help shape a future in which data-driven decision-making results in improved human health, sustainable behaviours, and increased quality of life.


The ICAPMOT 2023 Conference Venue

We are excited to announce that the 2023 ICAPMOT conference will be held in the beautiful Canadian city of Niagara Falls. We hope to see you there!

A Journey from Engineer to Entrepreneur

Here, I’ll share my experience and discuss the various challenges of starting and running a business. I hope this presentation will be beneficial to those who want to start their own business, are in the early stages of their venture, or are simply looking for advice.
Technology is continuously changing, as many know. It has become a massive part of our lives, so it’s hard to imagine a time when we lived without it. As a young student, I had a passion for science and always wondered how technology could impact the way research is done one day, but more importantly, how I could be a part of it. But, of course, science has always had and continues to impact my life significantly. My journey began when I was just a high school student and continues to be an aspiring entrepreneur.
What exactly is an entrepreneur? It is a person who organizes, runs, and operates a business or business, taking on greater than normal financial risks in the process. So what exactly is an engineer? Engineer designs, build, or maintains engines, machines, or public works.
As an engineer, I needed to solve specific problems. My first job involved developing an electronic prototype current cut-out device, modifying the design, and fabricating parts. One of the pitfalls of being an engineer is that becoming overly focused on product design is all too easy. As a business owner, you’ll be dealing with more minor technical issues and more with new challenges in finance, management, advertising and promotion, and so on. Being an entrepreneur necessitates knowledge of marketing, sales, production, and a financial plan, in addition to engineering excellence. Starting, running, and growing your own business, on the other hand, is fraught with unforeseen circumstances and problems that one must address. The better one understands these roles, the more equipped one will be to transition from engineer to entrepreneur.
Before I began my journey as an entrepreneur, I had a passion for science and technology from my school days in Nepal. My academic journey started from school in Myagdi district, west Nepal, and moved to Shri Ram Gorkha High School in Kapilvastu to complete my high school. I did my college studies at Amrit Science College in Kathmandu, Nepal, an undergraduate degree from Bangladesh through a Nepal-Bangladesh fellowship. Then, I got a fellowship from the Japanese government to conduct advanced research on nano-materials. When my fellowship was over, I migrated to Canada to complete my post-graduate degree in engineering at the University of British Columbia in Canada.
My professional career began when I got a job at the University of Victoria. I worked on magneto-plasmonics and developed a series of magnetic nano-particles, alloys, and periodic arrays of nano-holes. I continued my career at the University of California San Diego at the Centre for Magnetic Recording Research (CMRR), which allowed me to work with a fantastic team of researchers. It allowed me to work with state-of-the-art equipment. I also had a great experience working at the Baylor Research and Innovative Collaborative Centre (BRIC) in Waco, Texas as a visiting researcher with the nano-optics (plasmonics and metamaterials) group. In 2016, I returned to Canada after receiving a fellowship from MITACS. In addition, I worked on a joint industry-academia research project sponsored by York University in Toronto and GEM Systems Inc in Markham.
Over my 24 years of experience working, I have worked in big and small companies and have learned the differences in the work environment. You have many learning opportunities at small companies (1-50 employees) at you have many learning opportunities. You will get to know the owner or CEO & you can grow with the team that appreciates the employee taking the initiative in having a greater interest in the company beyond the job title. A good company will want to support your growth and allow you to try on different hats for size as you grow with them. In large companies (50 or more employees), companies treat you more like a number or statistic; they want less creative thinking, and getting ahead becomes difficult.
The strategic objective of my company is to grow, become profitable, create more job opportunities in Canada, and most importantly, develop new technologies so new generations can benefit from them. I can achieve my strategic objective if I form the right partnerships and collaborate with people with similar interests. These are driven by my genuine interest and ambition to make a difference in the community in the way things are done now and in the future. One common goal I always had from when I was just a high school student to now as an entrepreneur is to make a difference in people’s lives worldwide. Hopefully, with the right amount of dedication and effort, my company will positively impact many lives.
Read this post on Linkedin: A Journey from Engineer to Entrepreneur

Research, Innovations & Entrepreneurship

With blooming innovations in science and technology, many new opportunities are being created every day. Such benefits of technological innovations are not limited to only one field but open a gateway to many new possibilities. One such remarkable use of innovation is in entrepreneurship. As it is said, “Necessity is the mother of invention.”  This applies to today’s fast-paced world where people are always seeking new ventures and prefer to take charge to start their business start-ups. Such a link between innovation and business is called an entrepreneurial venture. An entrepreneurial venture is unique because its core values lie in innovation and opportunism. Innovations uplift the entrepreneur to take new challenges, adapt and act accordingly with the changing atmospheres.
Importance of Research:
Continuous research in the field of technology paves the way for innovations and new ideas to be implemented. Research holds paramount importance in identifying problems and presenting solutions. Through research, many intelligent minds gather and brainstorm about a particular topic which accounts for the progress done in that field. Extensive and fruitful researches result in notable findings and broadening the human imagination, all of which play a vital role in bringing innovation. Similarly, entrepreneurial ventures also proceed by innovation, creative thinking, and problem-solving skills where different minds gather and chalk out a strategy that leads to successful outcomes.
“Research is formalized curiosity. It is poking and prying with a purpose.” – Zora Neale Hurston
Innovation Leading to an Entrepreneurial Ventures:
Innovation leads to taking on new challenges and providing a prompt solution. Innovative thinking encourages problem-solving through creative and inventive solutions. Looking at things from a wider scope and planning out solutions is the way to go forward. Innovation fuels entrepreneurship and such innovative entrepreneurs are motivated to act ingeniously and provide effective solutions.
“Innovation is the unrelenting drive to break the status quo and develop anew where few have dared to go.“ – Steve Jeffes, Marketing & Business Expert
Economic Growth:
New ideas might seem risky to implement, let alone generate profit and wealth, but with great entrepreneurship skills, these innovations guarantee a robust economy by introducing problem-solving techniques, taking a calculated risk, and being proactive as to how the market is changing. Moreover, many small startups have taken this innovative route and turned into big entrepreneurial firms, bagging millions of profit.
Flexibility in Workplace:
Innovations have also redefined the workplace environment and experience with the younger generations who are more inclined towards quick and easy solutions with flexible working hours. Companies are also adapting to seek out innovative approaches and are getting equipped with better solutions to provide a smooth and swift working experience to their staff. Freelancing job opportunities and work from home are the offsprings of technological innovations.
Catering to Customer Needs:
With a remarkable increase in technological innovations, the demands of customers are ever-increasing. This leads to a rise in entrepreneurial ventures, inculcating innovations and developing such products that fulfill the customers’ needs and are up to date with the latest technology.
Amazon Go is a unique convenience store with no crew or staff, providing a special and convenient retail experience where there is no concept of cashier and paying money, and everything is automated. When you enter the store, you have to log in to an app that will automatically know what you have picked up and purchased and the amount will be deducted from your account. This is a perfect example of innovations catering to customers’ needs and leading to entrepreneurial ventures.
“Innovation is taking two things that exist and putting them together in a new way.“ – Tom Freston, Co-founder of MTV
Examples of Innovative Entrepreneurial Ventures:
Some notable examples of innovations leading to entrepreneurial ventures are,

●    Google which was previously just a search engine has now redefined advertisement through GoogleAds. 

●    Nike which is a leading shoe brand, collaborating with Apple launched a Nike + iPod sports kit measuring the distance and speed of a run or walk.
electronic biosensor1

Electronic Biosensors

Biosensors are nowadays used in biomedical diagnosis as well as in a wide range of other areas such as point-of-care monitoring of treatment and disease progression, environmental monitoring, food control, drug discovery, forensics and biomedical research. A wide range of techniques can be used for the development of biosensors. Their coupling with high-affinity biomolecules allows the sensitive and selective detection of a range of analytes. One type of such sensor is electronic biosensor which uses “Bioreceptor, Transducer and Display” to electronically transmit signals.

This is the part of a biosensor that processes the transduced signal and prepares it for display. It consists of complex electronic circuitry that performs signal conditioning such as amplification and conversion of signals from analogue into the digital form. The processed signals are then quantified by the display unit of the biosensor.


electronic biosensor1


Types of Electronic biosensors


  1. Potentiometric: Potentiometric sensor is a type of chemical sensor that may be used to determine the analytical concentration of some components of the analyte gas or solution. These sensors measure the electrical potential of an electrode when no current is present.

potentiometric sensor


  1. Amperometric: The principle of amperometric sensor is based on measuring current generated by enzymatic or bio affinity reaction at the electrode surface, at a constant working potential with respect to the reference electrode.

  1. Cantilever-based sensor: Cantileverbasedsensors are extremely versatile, they can be operated in air, vacuum and liquid environment, they can transduce a number of different signals, such as magnetic, stress, electric, thermal, chemical, mass, and flow, into a mechanical deflection detected with sub-Angstrom resolution.



  Important Characteristics of Electronic Sensors:

  1. Selectivity: Selectivity is perhaps the most important feature of a biosensor. Selectivity is the ability of a bioreceptor to detect a specific analyte in a sample containing other admixtures and contaminants. The best example of selectivity is depicted by the interaction of an antigen with the antibody. Classically, antibodies act as bioreceptors and are immobilised on the surface of the transducer. A solution (usually a buffer containing salts) containing the antigen is then exposed to the transducer where antibodies interact only with the antigens. To construct a biosensor, selectivity is the main consideration when choosing bioreceptors. 


  1. Sensitivity: The minimum amount of analyte that can be detected by a biosensor defines its limit of detection (LOD) or sensitivity. In a number of medical and environmental monitoring applications, a biosensor is required to detect analyte concentration of as low as ng/ml or even fg/ml to confirm the presence of traces of analytes in a sample. For instance, a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration of 4 ng/ml in blood is associated with prostate cancer for which doctors suggest biopsy tests. Hence, sensitivity is considered to be an important property of a biosensor. 


  1. Reproducibility: Reproducibility is the ability of the biosensor to generate identical responses for a duplicated experimental set-up. The reproducibility is characterised by the precision and accuracy of the transducer and electronics in a biosensor. Precision is the ability of the sensor to provide alike results every time a sample is measured and accuracy indicates the sensor’s capacity to provide a mean value close to the true value when a sample is measured more than once. Reproducible signals provide high reliability and robustness to the inference made on the response of a biosensor.


Challenges Faced in Field of Electronic Biosensors

 Although biosensors employ fundamental sciences, it can hardly be rationalised as ‘curiosity-driven’ research. On the other hand, research in industry obeys the trend of ‘follow the money’ to some extent. Given the success of commercial glucose sensors, biosensor research is, of course, very lucrative for the industry’s long-term sustainability. However, it takes quite a long time to produce a commercially viable device from a proof of concept demonstrated in academia. This also involves a number of risks that industries are reluctant to face.

As a result, there are unaddressed mandatory issues concerning the production of a commercial biosensor, such as:

  • Identification of the market that is interested in a biosensor for a specific analyte of interest.
  • Clear-cut advantages over existing methods for analyses of that analyte.
  • Testing the performance of the biosensor both in use and after storage. Response of a biosensor after 6 months of storage is the absolute minimum for any practical commercial application.
  • Stability, costs and ease of manufacturing each component of the biosensor.
  • Hazards and ethics associated with the use of the developed biosensor.

Although, there have been challenges in implementing biosensors but the nature of biosensors is ubiquitous which outweighs its disadvantages to a great extent.



The rapid development in the field of biosensors over the past decades, both at the research and product development level, is mainly due to: (i) developments in miniaturisation and microfabrication technologies; (ii) the use of novel bio-recognition molecules; (iii) novel nanomaterials and nanostructured devices; and (iv) better interaction between life scientists and engineering/physical scientists.

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Magnetic Materials And Background

The history of the usefulness of magnetic substances is very long and extends to the period of Ved-Vedanta.

But now the usefulness and importance of magnetic materials has increased exponentially, especially with the development of new devices. In the last 20 years, I have never witnessed such an increase in the use of magnetic substances in the industry. These include computers, medical instruments, etc. as magnetic sensors (known as GMR sensors, which have the effect of electromagnetic force of matter, a sensor that has a very small effect even with a small magnetic field) have been used since before the 1990s. But in 1997, IBM first used the GMR sensor as a “read head” on a computer. Later, it brought a revolution on the internet.I don’t want to go there now. The subject I have been researching now is the “GMR sensor” and the “nano-particles” (a meter-long object, a fraction of a million times the size of a micrometer, called a nanometer) and the combination of the two (i.e., the GMR sensor and the nano-particles). Using these sensors, many chronic diseases, such as the early stages of cancer (as soon as the disease is diagnosed), can be detected and prevented and treated immediately.

Despite the significant achievement in the field, there are some barriers to using GMR sensors and nano-ears. For practical use in hospitals, for example, the sensitivity of the sensor and the magnetic moment of the nanoparticles must be by 10 / Oe (Orested) and more than 300 EMU/g, respectively. And there is a lot of research going on right now for the development of new technology and my main priority is related to research on how to detect the disease as soon as it is diagnosed (called Early Disease Detection Technology) and prevent the disease from spreading by treating it immediately. .You will find another utility of magnetic nano-ear in the field of magnetic imaging. Extensive research is underway, too. The use of magnetic nanoparticles is not limited to this. Cancer cells can be killed using magnetic nanoparticles using alternating magnetic fields. Similarly, the use of magnetic nanoparticles can be further expanded to be used as medicine. Can also be expanded to produce energy and space research. As far as I know, strong, friendly, and long-term collaboration between engineers, physicists, chemists, biologists, etc. is needed to develop potential new technologies. Interested dignitaries can study through the link below. For now, I want permission to end this brief description. Also, in the near future, I will be more interested in the use of magnetic materials. Thank you.


I informed the usefulness of magnetic matter in the biomagnetic field in my January 8, 2016 report. Shortly afterward, I also give a brief overview of the history of magnetic matter in a report published on January 21, 2016. We know that to understand anything basic, one has to go to the root of the thing. In the same way, in order to understand the usefulness of magnetic substances, one should not go to the root of Tesco. In today’s report too, I have decided to continue the history of magnetic matter.

Just as a driver can reach the destination quickly or not, that is, he can get into an accident in the middle, but if you drive slowly, follow the traffic rules, follow the traffic rules and drive slowly, you will reach the destination. Like a sweet Nepali proverb, However, I will continue to introduce you to the history of magnetic materials, in simple Nepali language, through MyWorld’s Science Blog, in a way that everyone can understand, starting with the history of magnetic materials, how they are being used in the medical field and how they will continue to grow in the future.

As simple as it sounds to hear the magnetic matter, it is just as difficult to understand and recognize, but it is not impossible! In the January 21 report, we discussed the contribution from Gilbert, Bernoulli, (Franklin, Orested, Ampere,) and Michael Faraday in particular, who proved that there is a correlation between the electric charge and the magnet, and later in 1945, it was shown again that there is a correlation between the magnet and the ray of light. Well-known physicist and mathematician James Clark Maxwell was encouraged at the time, but so was his concern, that the discovery by a bookstore (in his eyes, Michael Faraday) how could he (Michael Faraday) invent such a miracle? Inspired by new discoveries one after another by Michael Faraday, Maxwell came up with four famous mathematical formulas, known polularly by his name. These four equations theoretically explain the experimentals results of Michael Faraday. Surprisingly, these four sutras are looked very simple in nature, but they are very difficult to understand, like Sanskrit verses, which are easy to read but very difficult to explain! In this report, I will try to explain the four questions: DIV.E = r (i) DIV. B = 0 (ii) Curl × E = -dB/dt (iii) (1/µ0) Curl × B = j + x dE/dt (iv) (1) in a simple terms.

Here, formula one (i) represents the electrical law of Gauss. This means that the electricity emitted from any volume is directly related to the charge within the volume. The second formula represents Gauss’s magnetic law, which means that the single-pole north or the single-pole south of a magnet is never alone, just as the electric is positively and negatively charged. That is, the magnetic flux that enters or tries to enter the closed field is zero. Formula three, known as Faraday-Maxwell’s formula, is directly related to the rate at which the voltage accumulated within any closed field changes the magnetic flux. (This formula is also known as Faraday’s law of induction) and the formula is also known as the circuit law of four amperes, which means that within a closed circle, the change of electric current and the time of the electric field coincide directly within the magnetic field. Relates to the penetrating area. Even if you explain it in simple language, it may still be difficult to understand the meaning of these four sutras. So I want to briefly express S’s shar. In short, just as the formulas of an electric field are related to the electric charge and electric field located around a point, so the formulas of a magnetic field are related to the magnetic field located near a point and the current density located around that point. The most important of these four Maxwell formulas is that they can detect any electromagnetic radiation, such as a ray of sun, in which both electric and magnetic rays travel together at the speed of light, and the speed of light, in a vacuum, is its wavelength. ) And comes to be a qualitative value of frequency. It is important to understand that this formula applies not only to light but also to all kinds of electromagnetic waves in the universe.

Fig. 1: electric and magnetic pair., Traveling (speed @ 3 × 108 m / sec). E and H are 90 degrees apart.

As seen in Maxwell’s four formulas above, the magnetic and electric constants, just called permeability and permeability, respectively, are multiplied by the square root, inverted, and the speed of the sun’s rays in a vacuum is exactly 30 million per meter, ie , c =. Surprisingly, the Sun’s motion corresponds exactly to the ratio of the average electric field (Eavg) and magnetic field (BAvg) mentioned in Maxwell’s formula (i.e. 30 million meters per second). There is no doubt that the basis of electricity and magnetic matter is electric charges and magnetic dipoles (magnetic dipoles and loops of electric current are the same). In the magnetic field, Maxwell’s Sutra, as well as Lorenz’s Sutra, is another important discovery. Lorenz’s law states that any moving particle with charge, q, and speed, v, the electric and magnetic force it experiences, is given by the following formula (2).f=q(E+ v×B) (2) There is no doubt that the basis of electricity and the magnetic matter is electric charges and magnetic dipoles (magnetic dipoles and loops of electric current are the same). In the magnetic field, Maxwell’s Sutra, as well as Lorenz’s Sutra, is another Mahota full-fledged. Lorenz’s law states that any moving particle with charge, q, and speed, v, the electric and magnetic force it experiences, is given by the following formula (2). Magnetic materials are now widely used, especially in telecom, computers, and other consumer goods. Widely used electromagnets are being replaced by smaller permanent magnets.

As I mentioned in a report published on January 8, these magnets have been widely used in the field of computers and have now resulted in the revolution of the Internet. Other areas where they shine include Earth Science, Space Technology, Food Science, Environmental Monitoring, etc. Also, the use of magnetic materials in the medical field has increased dramatically. In the coming days, I will report other important materials of significant interest in the industrial sectors such as medical diagnostics, DNA sequencing, point of care testing, cancer detection, prevention, and treatment. Please keep checking back the blog page for important updates.


Humidity Sensors

Conventional humidity sensors are primarily electronic devices. They can be designed to detect the amount of humidity present in the surrounding environment. These sensors measure the amount of humidity present in the environment by converting it to electrical signals, which is easily measurable. By comparing the live humidity with the maximum humidity at a given temperature at air, relative humidity is determined. The size and functionality of these sensors vary greatly ranging from some handheld device to larger embedded systems.
Most humidity sensors are used in meteorology, medical, automobile and manufacturing industries. Conventional humidity sensors are primarily divided into two groups: capacitive and resistive humidity sensors. While the capacitive sensors use two electrodes to monitor the capacitance which is a function of the change of humidity in the sensor’s environment, which is analysed using an embedded compute for processing. Resistive humidity sensors utilize a small polymer comb that increases and decreases in size as the humidity changes, which directly affects the system’s ability to store charge.
At Seed NanoTech International Inc, we use magneto-optic surface plasmon based sensors to monitor humidity in the air. Instead of pure electronics, as in the conventional sensors, our sensors use optical laser, magnetic field, and special designed sensor configuration.


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Sensitivity and Detection Limit

While selecting a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) instrument, the biggest concern for the customer is its sensitivity and detection limit. The sensitivity of SPR is complex as there is no single term to define it.  We will discuss some of the commonly used terms of SPR. The motive here is to provide the users of SPR with guidelines to determine sensitivity and detection limit if a certain definition is useful for a customer’s application.


The first term we will define is Angular Sensitivity. In angular sensitivity, the angle of incident light at which surface plasmon resonance takes place is measured. Depending on molecular binding incident onto the sensor surface or some kind of change in the refractive index (index refraction) of the medium near the sensor surface, the angular shift of the resonance defines the sensitivity. In this case, the minimum detectable angular shift is used to define sensitivity. This sensitivity also depends on the prism material, the dielectric constant of the metal and dielectrics, as well as on the wavelength of the light used to excite the surface plasmons.

The penetration of the optical signal in the medium depends on the upon the wavelength of the optical radiation and the penetration in the medium increases with the wavelength.  For Longer wavelengths such as near-infrared, have the advantage of being able to investigate further beyond the surface of the sensor. This activity however results in a significant loss of surface sensitivity.

Another common term is the Relative Index of Refraction Unit (RIU). In contrast to the angular shift, the unit RIU is more significant to applications that demand an exact measurement of the index of refraction of a medium. For applications aspiring to study molecular binding events, RIU is not the best way to define. There can likely be a relationship between angular shift and RIU if one knows the exact instrumental conditions such as the wavelength of incident light and prism material. Note that an SPR instrument with the best sensitivity in terms of RIU does not always mean that it has the best sensitivity in terms of detecting molecular binding.

Surface Coverage can be used to detect molecular binding that takes place on the sensor surface. In this case, the appropriate way to define the sensitivity is in pg/mm. The unit of Response (RU) is defined as 1 RU= 1 pg/mm which is frequently used to determine surface coverage.

However, like other examples, this is not a universal definition. For example, sensitivity based on the size, optical polarizability and density of the molecules bound to the surface, may be different from an SPR measurement with respect to the mass per unit surface area. The polarizability depends on the wavelength of light, particularly when the wavelength is close to the optical absorption band of the molecules like UV-vis labels, chromosomes etc. As most of the proteins have analogous polarizabilities, the SPR signal may be considered approximately proportional to the coverage of molecules bound to the sensor surface, and pg/mm is a useful way to quantify SPR sensitivity.

Sensitivity is sometimes defined in terms of lowest detectable molar concentration however; a highly sensitive instrument cannot accurately guarantee the detection of an extremely low analyte concentration. Just because a sensor is highly sensitive doesn’t mean it is suitable for every application. This is because the detection limit and sensitivity are two different analytical “figures of merit”, which are frequently mixed. The instrumental noise in the background has some effect on determining the lowest detection level. Some of the factors that determine sensitivity are as follows:

  • Molar concentration
  • Molecular sizes. For example, those with small molecular weight and polarizability can be can be detected easily.
  • Surface coverage and affinity of the captured molecules
  • Operating temperature,
  • Buffer solution and
  • The thickness of the modifier layer and its refractive index.
  • SPR binding responses such as binding assays, labels, enzymatic reactions, etc.

Hence, sensitivity of SPR in terms of lowest detectable molar concentration can be misleading and incredibly challenging to beginner SPR users.

Detection Levels/Limits

Next, let’s discuss how detection levels are determined. There are many ways to determine Detection Levels as the definition of “lowest detectable level” is not distinctly signified. Some indicate the root-mean-square or standard deviation while others choose to use the peak-to-peak value of the noise in the SPR signal. In analytical chemistry, the most used definition of detection limit is three times the standard deviation of the background noise.
Though time-consuming, the noise can be filtered and by smoothening of data and time averaging, one can remove certain noises and improve both detection level and the sensitivity.

The noise level can also be influenced by electronic amplification. An increase of gain/amplification may improve the signal to noise ratio, but this typically affects the detection range or dynamic range of the instrument. Finally, when comparing imaging SPR or other pixel-based detectors, the sensitivity is determined by how many pixels the SPR signal is averaged over time. The more the pixels, the better the sensitivity, however this increased sensitivity comes at the cost of spatial resolution and response time.

You would need a bit of a push yourself!

Over the last 3 years, I tried building novel sensing instruments at the company where I was previously employed but could not deliver the final product due to many challenges. The work required expertise in many fronts- engineering, physics, magneto-optics, biology and medicine. One day the company’s CEO came to my office and said that it’s time to postpone the project. I felt bad as it was my passion and I was hoping that the project would be successful if I had more time. That was a year ago. Now looking back, I see that it was the best thing to happen to me.

When I was an employee in a company, I had to follow the company rules as set out by the company and like every body else, and be there on time, report the progress every week, set a meeting with the CEO, and so on. Navigating the company structure, some of the company decisions misaligned with my ethics and values, and a lack of team effort hindered my progress.

So, after I left the company and began applying for jobs, I realised I was offering much more than what the management was looking for and this might have been seen as a negative thing. Also, in some cases the company had a very specific need, whereas I had a multitude of expertise.

As an engineering student, I always wanted to build my own company, which I tried to do earlier but was unsuccessful. While being a researcher and not having a degree in management might be a factor, I was not a good planner. I decided that it was time for me to establish my own company and do some thing good for society, with an aim to innovate new devices.

I knew that one needed to combine many dissimilar material and ideas in order to innovate. Since I already had expertise on magnetics, photonics, chemistry and interest in biology, I found this perfect for me to develop new instruments that combine all these 4 fields. While its complexity was daunting, I was ready to move forward with this system after all, developing a new technique or new device requires to go beyond normal practices.

So, I hired employees and built a small team of people working from home-lab office solutions. Fast forward to 2020, COVID19 emerged, staff were laid off, company activities decreased, but despite of it all, I was still determined to work on the project. I out-sourced work, worked online with the staff where possible, looked out for funding through banks, and secured loans too. With freedom and hard work, I achieved a lot of work within the short period of a year and have now entered the stage of prototyping. Having built a good network with the university research centers and researchers, I’m hoping to collaborate. Just like me, you may also have a lot of potential hidden within you, you just need to take a chance on yourself.

#seednanotech #career #scientific

#challange #startup #seednano #innovation

ICAPMOT 2020 @ Pokhara, Nepal

Whether you are a young passionate student of science, an experienced scientist in the field, or if you have no background in science and would like to learn about about the latest research and development in the fields of plasmonics, magnetics as well as photonics then this conference is a must for you. The Seed NanoTech Inc. International Conference Series is organizing their first-ever international conference on advanced plasmonics, magnetics and magneto-optical technologies (ICAPMOT) in the beautiful city of Pokhara, Nepal. This conference will be held on September 21-25, 2020.

ICAPMOT will be lead by Conrad Rizal, co-founder and Board of Director, Seed NanoTech Inc., ON Canada. The five-day-long conference will have prominent guest speakers from the field of magnetics, Plasmonics, and photonics along with speakers from the local administration and industries.

The perfect blend of core research in the fields of plasmonics, magnetics as well as photonics makes this conference very significant. Moreover, this conference will provide a platform to the young minds around the world who will be participating to actively share, disseminate knowledge along with networking with the leaders in the fields of innovation, technology, education, and entrepreneurship.

So, if are you excited to be a part of this amazing conference, Register Here! Get an early-bird discount if you register before August 15, 2020.

You can participate in the conference as an invited speaker or a regular speaker or poster presenter. For these, you need to register and Submit your Abstract Here as:

We, at Seed NanoTech Inc., invite you to be a part of the ICAPMOT conference and disseminate your work with the scientific community. We ensure you that your attendance at this conference will not only enhance your profile within the scientific community but will also promote thoughtful discussion which in turn can lead to opportunities for future collaboration.

Looking forward to seeing you all there!

ICAPMOT 2020 Secretariat,
Canada office,
Howell St, Brampton, ON
Canada, L6Y 3J6