electronic biosensor1

ELECTRONIC BIOSENSORS

Biosensors are nowadays used in biomedical diagnosis as well as in a wide range of other areas such as point-of-care monitoring of treatment and disease progression, environmental monitoring, food control, drug discovery, forensics and biomedical research. A wide range of techniques can be used for the development of biosensors. Their coupling with high-affinity biomolecules allows the sensitive and selective detection of a range of analytes. One type of such sensor is electronic biosensor which uses “Bioreceptor, Transducer and Display” to electronically transmit signals.

This is the part of a biosensor that processes the transduced signal and prepares it for display. It consists of complex electronic circuitry that performs signal conditioning such as amplification and conversion of signals from analogue into the digital form. The processed signals are then quantified by the display unit of the biosensor.

 

electronic biosensor1

                                               

Types of Electronic biosensors

 

  1. Potentiometric: Potentiometric sensor is a type of chemical sensor that may be used to determine the analytical concentration of some components of the analyte gas or solution. These sensors measure the electrical potential of an electrode when no current is present.

potentiometric sensor

 

  1. Amperometric: The principle of amperometric sensor is based on measuring current generated by enzymatic or bio affinity reaction at the electrode surface, at a constant working potential with respect to the reference electrode.

  1. Cantilever-based sensor: Cantileverbasedsensors are extremely versatile, they can be operated in air, vacuum and liquid environment, they can transduce a number of different signals, such as magnetic, stress, electric, thermal, chemical, mass, and flow, into a mechanical deflection detected with sub-Angstrom resolution.

                                          

 

  Important Characteristics of Electronic Sensors:

  1. Selectivity: Selectivity is perhaps the most important feature of a biosensor. Selectivity is the ability of a bioreceptor to detect a specific analyte in a sample containing other admixtures and contaminants. The best example of selectivity is depicted by the interaction of an antigen with the antibody. Classically, antibodies act as bioreceptors and are immobilised on the surface of the transducer. A solution (usually a buffer containing salts) containing the antigen is then exposed to the transducer where antibodies interact only with the antigens. To construct a biosensor, selectivity is the main consideration when choosing bioreceptors. 

     

  1. Sensitivity: The minimum amount of analyte that can be detected by a biosensor defines its limit of detection (LOD) or sensitivity. In a number of medical and environmental monitoring applications, a biosensor is required to detect analyte concentration of as low as ng/ml or even fg/ml to confirm the presence of traces of analytes in a sample. For instance, a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration of 4 ng/ml in blood is associated with prostate cancer for which doctors suggest biopsy tests. Hence, sensitivity is considered to be an important property of a biosensor. 

 

  1. Reproducibility: Reproducibility is the ability of the biosensor to generate identical responses for a duplicated experimental set-up. The reproducibility is characterised by the precision and accuracy of the transducer and electronics in a biosensor. Precision is the ability of the sensor to provide alike results every time a sample is measured and accuracy indicates the sensor’s capacity to provide a mean value close to the true value when a sample is measured more than once. Reproducible signals provide high reliability and robustness to the inference made on the response of a biosensor.

                                         

Challenges Faced in Field of Electronic Biosensors

 Although biosensors employ fundamental sciences, it can hardly be rationalised as ‘curiosity-driven’ research. On the other hand, research in industry obeys the trend of ‘follow the money’ to some extent. Given the success of commercial glucose sensors, biosensor research is, of course, very lucrative for the industry’s long-term sustainability. However, it takes quite a long time to produce a commercially viable device from a proof of concept demonstrated in academia. This also involves a number of risks that industries are reluctant to face.

As a result, there are unaddressed mandatory issues concerning the production of a commercial biosensor, such as:

  • Identification of the market that is interested in a biosensor for a specific analyte of interest.
  • Clear-cut advantages over existing methods for analyses of that analyte.
  • Testing the performance of the biosensor both in use and after storage. Response of a biosensor after 6 months of storage is the absolute minimum for any practical commercial application.
  • Stability, costs and ease of manufacturing each component of the biosensor.
  • Hazards and ethics associated with the use of the developed biosensor.

Although, there have been challenges in implementing biosensors but the nature of biosensors is ubiquitous which outweighs its disadvantages to a great extent.

 

Conclusion

The rapid development in the field of biosensors over the past decades, both at the research and product development level, is mainly due to: (i) developments in miniaturisation and microfabrication technologies; (ii) the use of novel bio-recognition molecules; (iii) novel nanomaterials and nanostructured devices; and (iv) better interaction between life scientists and engineering/physical scientists.

MAGNETIC MATERIALS AND BACKGROUND, POTENTIAL USES AND FUTURE OF MAGNETIC MATERIALS

The history of the usefulness of magnetic substances is very long and extends to the period of Ved-Vedanta.

But now the usefulness and importance of magnetic materials has increased exponentially, especially with the development of new devices. In my fifteen years of research, I have never experienced such an increase in the use of magnetic substances. Yes, in the computer field, magnetic sensors (known as GMR sensors, which have the effect of electromagnetic force of matter, a sensor that has a very small effect even with a small magnetic field) have been used since before the 1990’s.But in 1997, IBM first used the GMR sensor as a “read head” on a computer. Later, S brought revolution on the internet.I don’t want to go there now. The subject I have been researching now is the “GMR sensor” and the “nanocorn” (a meter-long object, a fraction of a million times the size of a fragment called a nanometer) and the combination of the two (i.e., the GMR sensor and the nano) Many chronic diseases, such as the early stages of cancer (as soon as the disease is diagnosed), can be detected and prevented and treated immediately.

But there are some barriers to using GMR sensors and nano-ears. For practical use in hospitals, for example, the sensitivity of the sensor and the magnetic moment of the nanoparticles must be by 10 / Oe (Orested) and more than 300 EMU / g, respectively. And there is a lot of research going on right now for the development of new technology and my main priority is related to research on how to detect the disease as soon as it is diagnosed (called Early Disease Detection Technology) and prevent the disease from spreading by treating it immediately. .You will find another utility of magnetic nano-ear in the field of magnetic imaging. Extensive research is underway, too. The use of magnetic nanoparticles is not limited to this. Cancer cells can be killed using magnetic nanoparticles using alternating magnetic fields. Similarly, the use of magnetic nanoparticles can be further expanded to be used as medicine. Can also be expanded to produce energy and space research. As far as I know, strong, friendly, and long-term collaboration between engineers, physicists, chemists, biologists, etc. is needed to develop potential new technologies. Interested dignitaries can study through the link below. For now, I want permission to end this brief description. Also, in the near future I will be more interested in the use of magnetic materials. Thank you.

HISTORY OF MAGNETISM

I was informed about the usefulness of magnetic matter in the biomagnetic field in my January 8, 2016 report. Shortly afterwards, I tried to give a brief overview of the history of magnetic matter in a report published on January 21, 2016. We know that to understand anything basic, one has to go to the root of the thing. In the same way, in order to understand the usefulness of magnetic substances, one should not go to the root of Tesco. In today’s report too, I have decided to continue the history of magnetic matter.

Just as a driver can reach the destination quickly or not, that is, he can get into an accident in the middle, but if you drive slowly, follow the traffic rules, follow the traffic rules and drive slowly, you will reach the destination. Like a sweet Nepali proverb, However, I will continue to introduce you to the history of magnetic materials, in simple Nepali language, through MyWorld’s Science Blog, in a way that everyone can understand, starting with the history of magnetic materials, how they are being used in the medical field and how they will continue to grow in the future.

As simple as it sounds to hear magnetic matter, it is just as difficult to understand and recognize, but it is not impossible! In the January 21 report, we have Gilbert, Bernoulli, (Franklin, Orested, Ampere,) and Michael Faraday in particular. Proved that there is a correlation between the electric charge and the magnet, and later in 1945 it was shown again that there is a correlation between the magnet and the ray of light. Well-known physicist and mathematician James Clark Maxwell was encouraged at the time, but so was his concern. Jabo bookstore (in his eyes) to do such a miracle? That they are also tattiya. Inspired by one new discovery after another by Michael Faraday, Maxwell came up with four famous mathematical formulas, known by his own name, which could theoretically explain the result of Michael Faraday’s experiment. Surprisingly, these four sutras are very simple in nature, but they are difficult to understand, like Sanskrit verses, and difficult to explain, but not impossible! I found it difficult to explain Maxwell’s formula in simple language, even when talking to many foreign friends. So here I am, trying to explain in simple language. And they are: DIV.E = r (i) DIV.. B = 0 (ii) Curl × E = -dB/dt (iii) (1/µ0) Curl × B = j + x dE/dt (iv) (1)

Here, formula one (i) represents the electrical law of Gauss. This means that the electricity emitted from any volume is directly related to the charge within the volume. The second formula represents Gauss’s magnetic law, which means that the single pole north or the single pole south of a magnet is never alone, just as the electric is positively and negatively charged. That is, the magnetic flux that enters or tries to enter the closed field is zero. Formula three, known as Faraday-Maxwell’s formula, is directly related to the rate at which the voltage accumulated within any closed field changes the magnetic flux. (This formula is also known as Faraday’s law of induction) and the formula is also known as the circuit law of four amperes, which means that within a closed circle, the change of electric current and the time of the electric field coincide directly within the magnetic field. Relates to the penetrating area.Even if you explain it in simple language, it may still be difficult to understand the meaning of these four sutras. So I want to briefly express S’s shar. In short, just as the formulas of an electric field are related to the electric charge and electric field located around a point, so the formulas of a magnetic field are related to the magnetic field located near a point and the current density located around that point. The most important of these four Maxwell formulas is that they can detect any electromagnetic radiation, such as a ray of sun, in which both electric and magnetic rays travel together at the speed of light, and the speed of light, in a vacuum, is its wavelength. ) And comes to be a qualitative value of frequency. It is important to understand that this formula applies not only to light but also to all kinds of electromagnetic waves in the universe.

Fig. 1: electric and magnetic pair., Traveling (speed @ 3 × 108 m / sec). E and H are 90 degrees apart.


As seen in Maxwell’s four formulas above, the magnetic and electric constants, just called permeability and permeability, respectively, are multiplied by the square root, inverted, and the speed of the sun’s rays in a vacuum is exactly 30 million per meter, ie , c =.Surprisingly, the Sun’s motion corresponds exactly to the ratio of the average electric field (Eavg) and magnetic field (BAvg) mentioned in Maxwell’s formula (i.e. 30 million meters per second). There is no doubt that the basis of electricity and magnetic matter is electric charges and magnetic dipoles (magnetic dipoles and loops of electric current are the same). In the magnetic field, Maxwell’s Sutra, as well as Lorenz’s Sutra, is another Mahottan Abhishakar. Lorenz’s law states that any moving particle with charge, q and speed, v, the electric and magnetic force it experiences, is given by the following formula (2).f=q(E+ v×B) (2) There is no doubt that the basis of electricity and magnetic matter is electric charges and magnetic dipoles (magnetic dipoles and loops of electric current are the same). In the magnetic field, Maxwell’s Sutra, as well as Lorenz’s Sutra, is another Mahota full-fledged. Lorenz’s law states that any moving particle with charge, q and speed, v, the electric and magnetic force it experiences, is given by the following formula (2).Magnetic materials are now widely used, especially in telecom, computers, and other consumer goods. Widely used electromagnets are being replaced by smaller permanent magnets.

As I mentioned in a report published on January 8, these magnets have been widely used in the field of computers and have now resulted in the revolution of the Internet. Areas other than computers, such as Earth Science, Space Technology, Food Science, Environmental Monitoring, etc. And, the use of magnetic materials in the medical field has increased tremendously. In the coming days, I will present materials related to the use of magnetic materials, medical diagnostics, DNA sequencing, point of care testing, cancer detection, prevention and treatment. Please look at my world.

Humidity Sensors

Conventional humidity sensors are primarily electronic devices. They can be designed to detect the amount of humidity present in the surrounding environment. These sensors measure the amount of humidity present in the environment by converting it to electrical signals, which is easily measurable. By comparing the live humidity with the maximum humidity at a given temperature at air, relative humidity is determined. The size and functionality of these sensors vary greatly ranging from some handheld device to larger embedded systems.
Most humidity sensors are used in meteorology, medical, automobile and manufacturing industries. Conventional humidity sensors are primarily divided into two groups: capacitive and resistive humidity sensors. While the capacitive sensors use two electrodes to monitor the capacitance which is a function of the change of humidity in the sensor’s environment, which is analysed using an embedded compute for processing. Resistive humidity sensors utilize a small polymer comb that increases and decreases in size as the humidity changes, which directly affects the system’s ability to store charge.
At Seed NanoTech International Inc, we use magneto-optic surface plasmon based sensors to monitor humidity in the air. Instead of pure electronics, as in the conventional sensors, our sensors use optical laser, magnetic field, and special designed sensor configuration.

First ever International Conference on Advanced plasmonics, magnetics, and optical technologies (ICAPMOT) 2021! @ Pokhara, Nepal

Sensitivity and Detection Limit

While selecting a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) instrument, the biggest concern for the customer is its sensitivity and detection limit. The sensitivity of SPR is complex as there is no single term to define it.  We will discuss some of the commonly used terms of SPR. The motive here is to provide the users of SPR with guidelines to determine sensitivity and detection limit if a certain definition is useful for a customer’s application.

Sensitivity

The first term we will define is Angular Sensitivity. In angular sensitivity, the angle of incident light at which surface plasmon resonance takes place is measured. Depending on molecular binding incident onto the sensor surface or some kind of change in the refractive index (index refraction) of the medium near the sensor surface, the angular shift of the resonance defines the sensitivity. In this case, the minimum detectable angular shift is used to define sensitivity. This sensitivity also depends on the prism material, the dielectric constant of the metal and dielectrics, as well as on the wavelength of the light used to excite the surface plasmons.

The penetration of the optical signal in the medium depends on the upon the wavelength of the optical radiation and the penetration in the medium increases with the wavelength.  For Longer wavelengths such as near-infrared, have the advantage of being able to investigate further beyond the surface of the sensor. This activity however results in a significant loss of surface sensitivity.

Another common term is the Relative Index of Refraction Unit (RIU). In contrast to the angular shift, the unit RIU is more significant to applications that demand an exact measurement of the index of refraction of a medium. For applications aspiring to study molecular binding events, RIU is not the best way to define. There can likely be a relationship between angular shift and RIU if one knows the exact instrumental conditions such as the wavelength of incident light and prism material. Note that an SPR instrument with the best sensitivity in terms of RIU does not always mean that it has the best sensitivity in terms of detecting molecular binding.

Surface Coverage can be used to detect molecular binding that takes place on the sensor surface. In this case, the appropriate way to define the sensitivity is in pg/mm. The unit of Response (RU) is defined as 1 RU= 1 pg/mm which is frequently used to determine surface coverage.

However, like other examples, this is not a universal definition. For example, sensitivity based on the size, optical polarizability and density of the molecules bound to the surface, may be different from an SPR measurement with respect to the mass per unit surface area. The polarizability depends on the wavelength of light, particularly when the wavelength is close to the optical absorption band of the molecules like UV-vis labels, chromosomes etc. As most of the proteins have analogous polarizabilities, the SPR signal may be considered approximately proportional to the coverage of molecules bound to the sensor surface, and pg/mm is a useful way to quantify SPR sensitivity.

Sensitivity is sometimes defined in terms of lowest detectable molar concentration however; a highly sensitive instrument cannot accurately guarantee the detection of an extremely low analyte concentration. Just because a sensor is highly sensitive doesn’t mean it is suitable for every application. This is because the detection limit and sensitivity are two different analytical “figures of merit”, which are frequently mixed. The instrumental noise in the background has some effect on determining the lowest detection level. Some of the factors that determine sensitivity are as follows:

  • Molar concentration
  • Molecular sizes. For example, those with small molecular weight and polarizability can be can be detected easily.
  • Surface coverage and affinity of the captured molecules
  • Operating temperature,
  • Buffer solution and
  • The thickness of the modifier layer and its refractive index.
  • SPR binding responses such as binding assays, labels, enzymatic reactions, etc.

Hence, sensitivity of SPR in terms of lowest detectable molar concentration can be misleading and incredibly challenging to beginner SPR users.

Detection Levels/Limits

Next, let’s discuss how detection levels are determined. There are many ways to determine Detection Levels as the definition of “lowest detectable level” is not distinctly signified. Some indicate the root-mean-square or standard deviation while others choose to use the peak-to-peak value of the noise in the SPR signal. In analytical chemistry, the most used definition of detection limit is three times the standard deviation of the background noise.
Though time-consuming, the noise can be filtered and by smoothening of data and time averaging, one can remove certain noises and improve both detection level and the sensitivity.

The noise level can also be influenced by electronic amplification. An increase of gain/amplification may improve the signal to noise ratio, but this typically affects the detection range or dynamic range of the instrument. Finally, when comparing imaging SPR or other pixel-based detectors, the sensitivity is determined by how many pixels the SPR signal is averaged over time. The more the pixels, the better the sensitivity, however this increased sensitivity comes at the cost of spatial resolution and response time.

You would need a bit of a push yourself!

Over the last 3 years, I tried building novel sensing instruments at the company where I was previously employed but could not deliver the final product due to many challenges. The work required expertise in many fronts- engineering, physics, magneto-optics, biology and medicine. One day the company’s CEO came to my office and said that it’s time to postpone the project. I felt bad as it was my passion and I was hoping that the project would be successful if I had more time. That was a year ago. Now looking back, I see that it was the best thing to happen to me.

When I was an employee in a company, I had to follow the company rules as set out by the company and like every body else, and be there on time, report the progress every week, set a meeting with the CEO, and so on. Navigating the company structure, some of the company decisions misaligned with my ethics and values, and a lack of team effort hindered my progress.

So, after I left the company and began applying for jobs, I realised I was offering much more than what the management was looking for and this might have been seen as a negative thing. Also, in some cases the company had a very specific need, whereas I had a multitude of expertise.

As an engineering student, I always wanted to build my own company, which I tried to do earlier but was unsuccessful. While being a researcher and not having a degree in management might be a factor, I was not a good planner. I decided that it was time for me to establish my own company and do some thing good for society, with an aim to innovate new devices.

I knew that one needed to combine many dissimilar material and ideas in order to innovate. Since I already had expertise on magnetics, photonics, chemistry and interest in biology, I found this perfect for me to develop new instruments that combine all these 4 fields. While its complexity was daunting, I was ready to move forward with this system after all, developing a new technique or new device requires to go beyond normal practices.

So, I hired employees and built a small team of people working from home-lab office solutions. Fast forward to 2020, COVID19 emerged, staff were laid off, company activities decreased, but despite of it all, I was still determined to work on the project. I out-sourced work, worked online with the staff where possible, looked out for funding through banks, and secured loans too. With freedom and hard work, I achieved a lot of work within the short period of a year and have now entered the stage of prototyping. Having built a good network with the university research centers and researchers, I’m hoping to collaborate. Just like me, you may also have a lot of potential hidden within you, you just need to take a chance on yourself.

#seednanotech #career #scientific

#challange #startup #seednano #innovation

International Conference on Advanced plasmonics, magnetics, and optical technologies (ICAPMOT) 2020! @ Pokhara, Nepal

Whether you are a young passionate student of science, an experienced scientist in the field, or if you have no background in science and would like to learn about about the latest research and development in the fields of plasmonics, magnetics as well as photonics then this conference is a must for you. The Seed NanoTech Inc. International Conference Series is organizing their first-ever international conference on advanced plasmonics, magnetics and magneto-optical technologies (ICAPMOT) in the beautiful city of Pokhara, Nepal. This conference will be held on September 21-25, 2020.

ICAPMOT will be lead by Conrad Rizal, co-founder and Board of Director, Seed NanoTech Inc., ON Canada. The five-day-long conference will have prominent guest speakers from the field of magnetics, Plasmonics, and photonics along with speakers from the local administration and industries.

The perfect blend of core research in the fields of plasmonics, magnetics as well as photonics makes this conference very significant. Moreover, this conference will provide a platform to the young minds around the world who will be participating to actively share, disseminate knowledge along with networking with the leaders in the fields of innovation, technology, education, and entrepreneurship.

So, if are you excited to be a part of this amazing conference, Register Here! Get an early-bird discount if you register before August 15, 2020.

You can participate in the conference as an invited speaker or a regular speaker or poster presenter. For these, you need to register and Submit your Abstract Here as:

We, at Seed NanoTech Inc., invite you to be a part of the ICAPMOT conference and disseminate your work with the scientific community. We ensure you that your attendance at this conference will not only enhance your profile within the scientific community but will also promote thoughtful discussion which in turn can lead to opportunities for future collaboration.

Looking forward to seeing you all there!

ICAPMOT 2020 Secretariat,
Canada office,
Howell St, Brampton, ON
Canada, L6Y 3J6

Covid19, and how it has Impact our life habits

COVID 19 has changed how things are done. We do not know how long our life will be like this, however, while we have dramatically reduced the number of cases by the lockdown, there will be consequences in education developments. Although many countries are in the process of easing restrictions, this by no means, implies that the virus is gone. In fact, we don’t know if the virus will ever be 100% gone or even if an effective vaccine will be created. As we try to move on with our lives, we need to focus on the fact that nothing will ever be the same and it is of utmost importance that we try to limit the spread to vulnerable people.

One of the most effective ways to do this is by contact tracing, which in Canada, it’s on its way to success. It’s no secret that the Coronavirus has made life more unpredictable. Testing is important because a lot of people have very mild symptoms and not knowing if they are affected by corona or it is different flue or symptoms. Expanding the testing capacity would allow people to know whether they have the virus and how to move on. It is very important to realize that the rate will never be zero, at least not in the near future, so while everything may seem to be getting back to normal, it is up to ourselves to protect and limit the spread to vulnerable people.

@ A part of the information is extracted from the article by Dr. Shyam P. Lohani, Professor, published in Rising Nepal. Dr. Lohani is a founder and academic director of Nobel College, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Developing Diagnostics Instruments using a Novel Technology

Conrad Rizal pursues cutting edge science from his company located in Canada. His company, Seed NanoTech International specializes in highly sensitive instruments for biotechnology, medical, pharmaceutical clients, academic institutions, hospitals, and clinics. The company is located in Brampton where they are developing a diagnostic instrument that would be able to detect diseases caused by harmful bacteria and viruses. Seed NanoTech hopes to develop the instrument within the next six months with the aim to make low-cost testing more widely available.

The instrument would be highly accurate, quicker, user-friendly, and due to the highly sensitive nature, it will make it easier to trace infections and help curb the spread of the disease, said Dr. Rizal, co-founder and Director of Seed NanoTech International. “Biosensing instruments are not an option but a necessity, for diagnostic instruments that can provide users with accurate results, rather than having to rely on testing labs that can take within a day.”

Covid-19 Fundaments

Introduction: Corona viruses are important respiratory pathogens to humans and animals. The viruses are widespread among birds and mammals, with bats having largest variety of genomes. They are the cause of community-acquired upper respiratory tract infections in adults and probably also play a role in severe respiratory infections in all age groups.

A novel corona virus was identified as the cause of a cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, a city in the Hubei province of China, at the end of 2019. The 2019 novel corona virus (nCoV-19) is a new virus that causes respiratory illness in people and can spread from person to person. The cases are characterized primarily as fever, dyspnea, and bilateral infiltrates on chest imaging, but full clinical information is still under study.

Virology: Corona viruses are enveloped non-segmented positive sense RNA viruses belonging to the family Coronaviridae. The corona virus subfamily is further classified into four genera; alpha, beta, gamma and delta corona viruses. The human corona viruses (HCoVs) are in two of these genera: alpha corona viruses (HCoV-229E and HCoV-NL63) and beta corona viruses (HCov-OC43, HCov-HKU1, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus (MERS-CoV), and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Viruses (SARS-CoV). Corona viruses are medium-sized enveloped RNA viruses whose name derives from their crown-like appearance in electron micrographs. The genome encodes four or five structural proteins; S, M, HE and E.

The corona virus infection is initiated by the attachment to specific host cell receptors in respiratory system via the spike (S) protein. The host receptor is a major determinant of pathogenicity, tissue tropism, and host range of the viruses. The interaction between the spike protein S1 triggers conformational changes in the S protein, which then promotes membrane fusion between the viral and cell membrane through the S2 domain protein. Ultimately, such phenomenon is responsible for viremia and respiratory problems including cough, chest pain and breathing difficulty, followed by pneumonia and severe acute respiratory infection (SARI).

Laboratory: Infections of the corona virus could be detected by various methods such as 1) viral antigen or antibody test by rapid diagnostic method, 2) detection of viral antigen by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, and 3) virus isolation. Rapid detection of viral antigen is useful in early stages of infection with the presence of clinical symptoms. However, rapid detection of antibodies against the novel corona virus can be done after 7 to 10 days of infection with clinical symptoms. In this context, antibody detection tests should be repeated after one to two-weeks later because of the long incubation period and other confounding factors such as immune status, exposure or contact history as well as, asymptomatic condition of individuals.

The Real-Time RT-PCR diagnostic test is intended for the qualitative detection of nucleic acid of nCoV in upper and lower respiratory specimens (such as nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal swabs, sputum, lower respiratory tract aspirates, bronchoalveolar lavage and nasopharyngeal wash/aspirate or nasal aspirate) collected from individuals who meet 2019-nCoV clinical and/or epidemiological criteria (for example, clinical sign and symptoms associated with 2019-nCoV infection, contact with probable or confirmed case, history of travel to geographic locations where novel corona virus cases were detected, or other epidemiological links such a community transmission for which novel corona virus testing may be indicated as part of a public health investigation).The Real time PCR method is considered as the gold standard test for early detection and confirmation of the novel corona virus infection. However, detection limits, sensitivity and specificity of the real time PCR test kit are crucial factors for a confirmatory diagnosis of the novel corona virus 2019 infection.

@ Courtesy of Bishnu P Upadhyay, PhD Scholar, Pokhara University & Dr. Shyam P. Lohani, Professor and Founder, Nobel College  (Affiliated to Pokhara University), Kathmandu, Nepal